This book provides an overview of artisanal logging or small-scale timber exploitation in the Democratic Republic of Congo, based on contributions from 33 researchers from a variety of national and international organizations and institutions. The objective is to provide insight in the basic conditions to be fulfilled by a revised legal framework on artisanal logging in context of the FLEGT process. It is our strong belief that revision of the legal framework should benefit from the availability of in-depth information on artisanal logging as it happens in the field. The chapters in this book provide information on local practices of artisanal logging, including the actors involved including local communities; the interplay between economic and political interests; logging impacts on the forest; the importance of artisanal logging in the region; and its relevance for international development and forest governance policies. The book identifies three major issues related to artisanal logging in DR Congo: (1) local conflicts resulting from the abuse of power by political and military authorities vis-à-vis the rural population and artisanal loggers, (2) the financial harassment of artisanal loggers, which reduces both cost-effectiveness of artisanal logging and its contribution to the treasury and (3) the absence of a forest management system that guarantees the sustainability of artisanal timber exploitation.