The Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (TRHS) is one of the biggest conservation areas in Southeast Asia with a total area of 2,595,124 hectares. It comprises three widely separated National Parks: Gunung Leuser (GLNP), Kerinci Seblat (KSNP) and Bukit Barisan Selatan (BBSNP), with extraordinary beautiful landscapes and exceptional biodiversity including 10,000 species of plants, 201 species of mammals and 580 species of birds. It’s not surprising that TRHS was inscribed in the World Heritage list in 2004 by the World Heritage Committee (WHC)-UNESCO.
However, various threats have jeopardized the integrity of the TRHS. The main threats are deforestation and encroachment due to the expansion of monocultures and infrastructure development. Encroachment is often compounded by other problems, such as illegal logging and poaching. These problems have become entrenched due to the economic and political interests associated with the use of resources within park boundaries. These continuous threats led to TRHS being included by the WHC on the List of World Heritage in Danger since 2011.
This book provides a review on the anti-encroachment initiatives that have been carried out by the government, NGOs, and other related stakeholders in the three NPs under the TRHS and an analysis of strengths and weaknesses and associated impacts on the integrity of the NP areas. Anti-encroachment recommendations are provided as strategic actions to remove TRHS from the List of World Heritage in Danger. The lessons learned and the recommendations may be relevant to other NPs in the country.